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Factbook

Mapping environmental conflicts and cooperation

Factbook

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Conflict between Falata and Habaniya in Darfur, Sudan

Type of conflict sub
Intensity 3
Region
Northern Africa
Time 2006 ‐ 2010
Countries Sudan
Resources Agricultural / Pastoral Land
Conflict Summary Diminishing land resources, partly caused by spreading desertification and poor resource management, have intensified cattle raiding and territorial disputes...
Conflict between Falata and Habaniya in Darfur, Sudan
Diminishing land resources, partly caused by spreading desertification and poor resource management, have intensified cattle raiding and territorial disputes between the Falata and Habaniya communities of Darfur.
Conceptual Model

Climate Change

Land has become an increasingly scarce resource in Sudan due to desertification and more frequent drought.

Intermediary Mechanisms

Competition over resources is one of the major factors leading to clashes between the Falata and Habaniya of Darfur.

Fragility and Conflict Risks

Reciprocal attacks and cattle raids between the two groups have left more than 370 people dead.

Climate ChangeEnvironmental ChangeIntermediary MechanismsFragility and Conflict RisksSocial and Economic DriversMore frequent/intense extreme weather events reduce available natural resources.Economic developments reduce available natural resources.Reduced availability of/access to natural resources reduces available resources and ecosystem services.Reduced availability of/access to natural resources leads to distributive conflicts between societal groups.An increase in the frequency and/or intensity of extreme weather events, such as floods or droughts.More Frequent / Intense Extreme Weather EventsGrowing scarcity of essential natural resources.Natural Resource ScarcityA broad concept to cover economic growth in general but also specific economic changes or changes of incentives.Economic DevelopmentReduced availability of essential natural resources, such as land and water.Change in Access / Availability of Natural ResourcesNon-violent or violent tensions and conflicts between different societal groups.Grievances between Societal Groups
Context Factors
  • Dysfunctional Resource Management
  • Insecure Land Tenure
  • Water-stressed Area
  • History of Conflict
  • Low Level of Economic Development
Conflict History

Diminishing land resources, partly due to spreading desertification and poor resource management have increased resource competition between the Falata and Habaniya of Darfur. This, in turn has led to reciprocal attacks and cattle raids between the two groups between 2006 and 2010, leaving more than 370 people dead (Bromwich, 2008; Sudan Tribune, 2008; UCDP, 2015).

An important factor behind communal conflicts in Darfur is the struggle for recognition of ethnic homelands (“Dars” in Arabic). The Dar is of particular importance to local communities, allowing for native administration and political representation at the local and national level and thus increasing the group’s overall prestige. The possession of a Dar is also essential in order to gain access to basic services such as education (Flint, 2010). In the present case, the Falata, who did not have a well-established Dar, struggled to form one. This resulted in violent conflicts between the Falata and most of their neighbours, including the Habaniya (Takana, 2008). Ongoing wars and the spread of heavy weapons across many regions of Sudan have further intensified these conflicts (UCDP, 2015).

Resolution Efforts

After mediation efforts by the African Union - United Nations Mission in Darfur (UNAMID), the Falata and Habaniya reached a reconciliation agreement in 2010, which stated that the disputed areas should be shared (Radio Dabanga, 2010). Since then no more fighting has been reported.

Intensities & Influences
conflict intensity scale
Intensities
International / Geopolitical Intensity
Human Suffering

Influences
Environmental Influences
Societal Influences

Fatalities
300
Violent Conflict Yes
Salience within nation Municipal
Mass Displacement None
Cross Border Mass Displacement No
Resources
Agricultural / Pastoral Land
Resolution Success
Reduction in Violence Violence has ceded completely.
Reduction in geographical scope There has been no reduction in geographical scope.
Increased capacity to address grievance in the future There is no increased capacity to address grievances in the future.
Grievance Resolution Grievances have been partially addressed.
Causal Attribution of Decrease in Conflict Intensity Conflict resolution strategies have been clearly responsible for the decrease in conflict intensity.
General opencollapse
Country Data in Comparison
ConflictNoData Created with Sketch.
Fault Lines Defining Conflict Parties
Purely Environmental | Cultural   ♦   Occupational   ♦   Economic   ♦   Urban / Rural   ♦   National / International conflict   ♦   Sub-national political


Actors
Participation Conflict Party     Conflict Resolution Facilitator
Falata community
Functional GroupCivil Society
Geographical ScaleInternal Grassroots
Habaniya community
Functional GroupCivil Society
Geographical ScaleInternal Grassroots
United Nations Mission in Darfur
Functional GroupPublic
Geographical ScaleExternal
Entry Points for Resilience and Peace Building
3 Treaty/agreement A reconciliation agreement between both groups was reached in 2010.
Further Details opencollapse
Conflict Characterization
Character of the contested good Common-pool resource: No one can be excluded from use but the good is depleted.
Structure of decision-making power / interdependence Asymmetric: The power to affect the environmental resource is unequal.
Broad conflict characterization Resource Capture is present.
Ecological Marginalization is present.
Data of involved Countries
Resources and Materials opencollapse
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