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Factbook

Mapping environmental conflicts and cooperation

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Conflict between Fulani and Toubou in Niger

Type of conflict sub
Intensity 1.5
Region
Western Africa
Time 1993 ‐ 1994
Countries Niger
Resources Agricultural / Pastoral Land, Water
Conflict Summary Following the 1990 coup d’état in Chad, thousands of Toubou fled southward into territories inhabited by Fulani herders, fueling clashes over grazing rights.
Conflict between Fulani and Toubou in Niger
Following the 1990 coup d’état in Chad, thousands of Toubou fled southward into territories inhabited by Fulani herders, fueling clashes over grazing rights.
Conceptual Model

Fragility and Conflict Risks

The encounter between the two groups led to several clashes over grazing rights, further exacerbated by weapon trafficking from chad and lacking security provisions by the Nigerian government.

Climate ChangeEnvironmental ChangeIntermediary MechanismsFragility and Conflict RisksSocial and Economic DriversIn-migration leads to demographic change.Demographic changes increase pressures on available land resources.Land scarcity hampers agricultural production.Reduced availability of/access to natural resources leads to distributive conflicts between societal groups.Voluntary or involuntary movement of people from one area to another.Migration patternsChange in population density, age structure, or ethnic makeup.Demographic ChangeReduced availability of/ access to land.Increased Land ScarcityReduced availability of essential natural resources, such as land and water.Change in Access / Availability of Natural ResourcesNon-violent or violent tensions and conflicts between different societal groups.Grievances between Societal Groups
Context Factors
  • Water-stressed Area
  • History of Conflict
  • Low Level of Economic Development
  • Political Marginalization
  • Unresponsive Government
Case Study

The mainly pastoralist Toubou are a minority group that lives across several African states: Chad, Lybia, Niger and Sudan. Following the 1990 coup d’état in Chad, thousands of Toubou fled southward into territories inhabited by Fulani herders, triggering conflicts over grazing rights between 1993 and 1994 (UCDP, 2014).

The Toubou are a small ethnic minority group that inhabits a remote and inhospitable region. Their living conditions are characterized by adverse environmental conditions and a lack of sufficient public services and infrastructures. During the leadership of Muammar al Ghadaffi, the Lybian Toubou were victims of frequent discrimination; they were denied citizenship rights as well as access to education and basic services (UN Human Rights Council, 2010). In Chad, they also suffered from abuse by authorities (Azevedo, 1998).

These factors have all contributed to the vulnerability of the Toubou and their heavy dependence on pastoralism and grazing resources. Weapons trafficking into Niger from neighbouring Chad and the absence of effective security provision by the Nigerian government have enabled violence between Toubou and Fulani groups. Consequently, a climate of chronic insecurity and mutual distrust between the two groups has developed (UCDP, 2014).

Ultimately, this situation of insecurity contributed to the formation of the FDR (Front Démocratique du Renouveau), a rebel group demanding more autonomy for a part of north-eastern Niger.

Intensities & Influences
conflict intensity scale
Intensities
International / Geopolitical Intensity
Human Suffering

Influences
Environmental Influences
Societal Influences

Manifest Crisis
Violent Conflict Yes
Salience within nation Regional
Mass Displacement None
Cross Border Mass Displacement No
Resources
Agricultural / Pastoral Land, Water
Resolution Success
Reduction in geographical scope There has been no reduction in geographical scope.
General opencollapse
Country Data in Comparison
ConflictNoData Created with Sketch.
Fault Lines Defining Conflict Parties
Purely Environmental | Cultural   ♦   Occupational   ♦   Economic   ♦   Urban / Rural   ♦   National / International conflict   ♦   Sub-national political


Actors
Participation Conflict Party     Conflict Resolution Facilitator
Fulani herders (Niger)
Functional GroupCivil Society
Geographical ScaleInternal Grassroots
Toubou herders (Niger)
Functional GroupCivil Society
Geographical ScaleInternal Grassroots
Further Details opencollapse
Conflict Characterization
Character of the contested good Common-pool resource: No one can be excluded from use but the good is depleted.
Structure of decision-making power / interdependence Symmetric: All parties can affect the environmental resource equally.
Broad conflict characterization Resource capture is not present.
Ecological Marginalization is present.
Data of involved Countries
Resources and Materials opencollapse
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