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Factbook

Mapping environmental conflicts and cooperation

Factbook

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Conflict between Habaniya and Reizegat Baggara in Sudan

Type of conflict sub
Intensity 3
Region
Northern Africa
Time 2006 ‐ 2006
Countries Sudan
Resources Agricultural / Pastoral Land, Water
Conflict Summary Violent clashes between Habaniya and Reizegat Baggara pastoralists in 2006 are one of many communal conflicts originating from diminishing land and water...
Conflict between Habaniya and Reizegat Baggara in Sudan
Violent clashes between Habaniya and Reizegat Baggara pastoralists in 2006 are one of many communal conflicts originating from diminishing land and water resources in Darfur.
Conceptual Model

Climate Change

Darfur has been affected by spreading desertification and severe droughts, resulting in diminished land and water resources.

Intermediary Mechanisms

The growing scarcity of resources has forced a large number of northern pastoralist groups to migrate to southern Darfur. The added pressure on pastures has increased resource competition between southern groups such as the Habaniya and Reizegat Baggara.

Fragility and Conflict Risks

In 2006, a dispute over grazing land led to several violent clashes between Habaniya and Reizegat Baggara pastoralists, resulting in more than 150 deaths.

Climate ChangeEnvironmental ChangeIntermediary MechanismsFragility and Conflict RisksSocial and Economic DriversMore frequent/intense extreme weather events reduce available natural resources.Economic developments lead to changes in land use.Changes in land use reduce available/usable natural resources.Reduced availability of/access to natural resources reduces available resources and ecosystem services.Reduced availability of/access to natural resources induces migration.Migration leads to conflicts between migrants and residents.An increase in the frequency and/or intensity of extreme weather events, such as floods or droughts.More Frequent / Intense Extreme Weather EventsGrowing scarcity of essential natural resources.Natural Resource ScarcityA broad concept to cover economic growth in general but also specific economic changes or changes of incentives.Economic DevelopmentA change in the usage of environmentally relevant land.Land Use ChangeReduced availability of essential natural resources, such as land and water.Change in Access / Availability of Natural Resources(In)voluntary long and short-term movements of people within or across state boundaries.Displacements / MigrationNon-violent or violent tensions and conflicts between different societal groups.Grievances between Societal Groups
Context Factors
  • Water-stressed Area
  • History of Conflict
  • Low Level of Economic Development
  • Weak Institutions
Conflict History

In July 2006, a dispute over grazing land led to several violent clashes between Habaniya and Reizegat Baggara pastoralists, resulting in more than 150 deaths (UCDP 2015). Environmentally induced migration from northern pastoralists groups into south Darfur is believed to be an important reason behind this violence. Spreading desertification and severe droughts during the 1980s, have forced a large number of northern Darfurians to move to the southern part of the region.

The influx of pastoralist groups in the south has not only provoked disputes between newcomers and resident groups, but also heavily constrained overall access to pastures, thus increasing resource competition between southern groups such as the Habaniya and Reizegat Baggara. The gradual expansion of agriculture in southern Darfur has further aggravated this situation (Takana 2007; American University 2006).

A further important factor exacerbating these conflicts was the abolishment of the Native Administration system in 1971. In the past the Native Administration managed local land and grazing rights in accordance with customary institutions and helped avoiding conflicts between farmers and herders, as well as between migrants from northern Darfur and local communities in southern Darfur. Because the Sudanese Government presented no viable alternative, the abolishment of this system led to an institutional vacuum, crippling much of the functionality of customary land tenure and conflict mitigation institutions. The Government of Sudan also increasingly managed crises by supporting armed militia groups, thereby aggravating conflicts that could have been resolved in a peaceful manner (de Waal 2007; Unruh & Abdul-Jalil 2012).

Resolution Efforts

In 2006 the dispute between Habaniya and Reizegat Baggara was solved when the local administration organized a reconciliation conference. There, both parties signed a reconciliation document. Since then no more clashes have been reported (UCDP 2015; ACLED, 2014; CrisisWatch, 2014).

Intensities & Influences
conflict intensity scale
Intensities
International / Geopolitical Intensity
Human Suffering

Influences
Environmental Influences
Societal Influences

Fatalities
150
Violent Conflict Yes
Salience within nation Regional
Mass Displacement Less than 100.000 and less than 10% of the country's population are displaced within the country.
Cross Border Mass Displacement No
Resources
Agricultural / Pastoral Land, Water
Resolution Success
Reduction in Violence Violence has ceded completely.
Reduction in geographical scope There has been no reduction in geographical scope.
Increased capacity to address grievance in the future There is no increased capacity to address grievances in the future.
Grievance Resolution Grievances have been partially addressed.
Causal Attribution of Decrease in Conflict Intensity Conflict resolution strategies have been clearly responsible for the decrease in conflict intensity.
General opencollapse
Country Data in Comparison
ConflictNoData Created with Sketch.
Fault Lines Defining Conflict Parties
Purely Environmental | Cultural   ♦   Occupational   ♦   Economic   ♦   Urban / Rural   ♦   National / International conflict   ♦   Sub-national political


Actors
Participation Conflict Party     Conflict Resolution Facilitator
Habaniya community
Functional GroupCivil Society
Geographical ScaleInternal Grassroots
Reizegat Baggara community
Functional GroupCivil Society
Geographical ScaleInternal Grassroots
local administration
Functional GroupPublic
Geographical ScaleInternal Grassroots
Sudanese Government
Functional GroupPublic
Geographical ScaleInternal National
Further Details opencollapse
Conflict Characterization
Character of the contested good Public good: No one can be excluded from use and the good is not depleted.
Structure of decision-making power / interdependence Symmetric: All parties can affect the environmental resource equally.
Broad conflict characterization Resource capture is not present.
Ecological marginalization is not present.
Data of involved Countries
Resources and Materials opencollapse
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