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Mapping environmental conflicts and cooperation

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Santa Rita Dam Conflict in Guatemala

Type of conflict main
Intensity 3
Region
Central America
Time 2010 ‐ ongoing
Countries Guatemala
Resources Fish, Biodiversity, Agricultural / Pastoral Land, Water, Ecosystem Stability
Conflict Summary The ongoing construction of the Santa Rita Dam Project has sparked severe unrest among affected communities, state authorities and corporations involved in...
Santa Rita Dam Conflict in Guatemala
The ongoing construction of the Santa Rita Dam Project has sparked severe unrest among affected communities, state authorities and corporations involved in the project. To date, the conflict remains unresolved and there have been various human rights violations, including deaths.
Conceptual Model

Climate Change

Prior to the onset of the project, the upstream region of the Icbolay River was already suffering from increased water scarcity.

Intermediary Mechanisms

The dam project will also entail displacements, land dispossessions, as well as loss of livelihoods. The adverse effects of the project will potentially affect 200,000 people living in the area.

Fragility and Conflict Risks

The threat of adverse effects related to the project has sparked severe unrest between affected communities, private stakeholders and the government since the approval of the Santa Rita Dam Project in 2010.

Climate ChangeEnvironmental ChangeIntermediary MechanismsFragility and Conflict RisksSocial and Economic DriversChanging climate reduces available natural resources.Infrastructure development facilitates land use changes.Infrastructure development leads to environmental degradation.Changes in land use lead to migration/displacements.Pollution / Environmental degradation reduces available/usable natural resources.Reduced availability of/access to natural resources undermines resource-dependent livelihoods.Migration leads to conflicts between migrants and residents.Problems related to migration/displacements lead to growing discontent with the state.Livelihood insecurity fuels grievances between groups.Livelihood insecurity leads to growing discontent with the state.A slow change in climatic conditions, particularly temperature and precipitation.Gradual Change in Temperature and/or PrecipitationGrowing scarcity of essential natural resources.Natural Resource ScarcityConstruction of major infrastructure, such as dams, canals or roads.Infrastructure DevelopmentA change in the usage of environmentally relevant land.Land Use ChangePollution and degradation of ecosystems, such as coral reefs.Pollution / Environmental Degradation(In)voluntary long and short-term movements of people within or across state boundaries.Displacements / MigrationA threat or destruction of livelihoods dependent on the availability of environmental resources / goods.Livelihood InsecurityNon-violent or violent tensions and conflicts between different societal groups.Grievances between Societal GroupsChallenge to the state's legitimacy, ranging from peaceful protest to violent attempts at overthrowing the government.Anti-State Grievances
Context Factors
  • Unresponsive Government
Conflict History

In 2010, after a bidding process, the Guatemalan Ministry of Energy and Mines (MEM) gave the Hidroeléctrica Santa Rita S.A Corporation the license to construct the hydroelectric project on the Icbolay River. The Icbolay River is a tributary to the Chixoy River and the project located near the junction of the rivers Dolores and Canguinic in Monte Olivo in the department of Alta Verapaz. The involved area, which is 254 hectares in size, potentially affects 200,000 people, especially the Maya Q'eqchi and Poqomchí communities who inhabit the area (Navas, 2014).

Potential ramifications
The dam project entails concrete socio-economic factors, such as displacements, land dispossessions, as well as loss of livelihoods, biodiversity and habitat. Moreover, the upstream region has already been suffering from increasing water scarcity prior to the onset of the project. Ecologic repercussions in the form of biodiversity loss, groundwater pollution, reduced ecological and hydrological connectivity, deforestation and increased flood risks all stem from the dam construction.

The evolution of the conflict
The threat of adverse effects related to the project have sparked severe unrest between stakeholders, companies and the government since the approval of the Santa Rita Dam Project in the year 2010. Conflict between environmentalist, local farmers and indigenous Q’eqchi and Poqomchí communities, on the one hand, and Guatemalan national and municipal government, the National Civilian police as well as various corporations, most notably the Hidroeléctrica Santa Rita S.A, on the other hand, have steadily increased.

Since then, 22 communities have used several methods to mount their opposition to the project and enforce their legal rights. Tensions have grown over the lack of public consultation between the indigenous communities and the project developers, resulting in incidents of human rights violations as well as numerous acts of protests, including: injuries during violent evictions and repressive operations like arrests by the civilian police against the communities, murders of opponents, and the reported burning and destruction of facilities and items that belonged to the community (Peace Brigades International, 2014).

Since 2012, the violence linked to the dam construction has reached a peak upon the arrival of machinery and construction material. Such action disrespects the International Labour Organisation’s Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention 169 and triggered further demonstrations, blockages as well as other types of community mobilization (Navas,2014).

Despite opposition by environmentalists, local farmers and indigenous peoples, the construction works still continue. As of today, the construction work has entailed forced evictions, arrests and intimidation of community leaders, as well as 7 deaths according to human rights reports on behalf of the company (Telesur, 2014).

International involvement in the project
The private equity fund Latin Renewables Infrastructure Fund (LRIF) finances the Santa Rita Hydroelectric Plant’s construction. Investors in the fund include the German development finance institution (DEG), the Netherlands Development Finance Company (FMO), the International Finance Corporation (IFC), the Spanish Agency for International Cooperation (AECID) and the Swiss Investment Fund for Emerging Markets (SIFEM).

Since June 2014, the Santa Rita hydroelectric dam is officially registered under the UN’s carbon offsetting scheme Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) despite preceding pleas opposing its registration by the local communities to the CDM Board (Peace Brigades International, 2014).

Resolution Efforts

The conflict remains violent and, currently, without a foreseeable resolution.

In terms of the project management, human rights organizations deplore the absence of consent given by affected communities in accordance with the concept of a prior, free and informed consultation process, as well as a failure to observe the rights recognized in international covenants ratified by Guatemala.

During the conflict, the state is claimed to have failed to investigate and administer justice in the cases of attacks on residents. This is perceived as particularly unjust while, simultaneously, criminal harassment and arrest warrants are issued by the authorities with speed against leaders and residents within the community when responding to complaints made by companies and other non-government actors.

Finally, there is a lack of effective response in the form of state protection to physical and ecological threats that strongly affect the communities even though also explicitly reported to state authorities (Peace Brigades International, 2014).

In a plea to support the indigenous peoples, 29 civil society organisations have asked the UN Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples to immediately address the issue. In 2014, a convention was signed between national authorities, companies and communities on the Santa Rita Dam project – however, violence continues in the region (Navas, 2014).

Disputable project backing 
The UN carbon offsetting scheme Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM), under which the project was accepted, has also been strongly criticized. This criticism relates to shortcomings in integrating an adequate conflict prevention and management and for its underlying rules and procedures. A high-level panel associated with the CDM policy dialogue iterated recommendations, including the creation of a grievance mechanism for local stakeholders to voice social and environmental concerns and to help resolve issues that emerge after a project’s registration. There is currently correspondence between the CDM board and the community councils of the affected region by the Santa Rita project. These in particular demand further information on legal incoherence, policy issues and inclusion of the local stakeholders in the decision making process (Presbyterian Fellowship, 2014).

Intensities & Influences
conflict intensity scale
Intensities
International / Geopolitical Intensity
Human Suffering

Influences
Environmental Influences
Societal Influences

Fatalities
7
Violent Conflict Yes
Salience within nation National
Mass Displacement Less than 100.000 and less than 10% of the country's population are displaced within the country.
Cross Border Mass Displacement No
Resources
Fish, Biodiversity, Agricultural / Pastoral Land, Water, Ecosystem Stability
Resolution Success
Reduction in Violence There was no reduction in violence.
Resolve of displacement problems Displacement continues to cause discontent and/or other problems.
Reduction in geographical scope There has been no reduction in geographical scope.
Increased capacity to address grievance in the future There is no increased capacity to address grievances in the future.
Grievance Resolution Grievances have been completely ignored.
Causal Attribution of Decrease in Conflict Intensity There has been no reduction in intensity
General opencollapse
Country Data in Comparison
ConflictNoData Created with Sketch.
Fault Lines Defining Conflict Parties
Purely Environmental | Cultural   ♦   Occupational   ♦   Economic   ♦   Urban / Rural   ♦   National / International conflict   ♦   Sub-national political


Actors
Participation Conflict Party     Conflict Resolution Facilitator
Guatemalan national government
Functional GroupPublic
Geographical ScaleInternal National
Monte Olivo municipal government
Functional GroupPublic
Geographical ScaleInternal National
Hidroeléctrica Santa Rita S.A Corporation
Functional GroupCommercial
Geographical ScaleInternal National
Q’eqchi community
Functional GroupCivil Society
Geographical ScaleInternal Grassroots
Poqomchí community
Functional GroupCivil Society
Geographical ScaleInternal Grassroots
Local famers
Functional GroupCivil Society
Geographical ScaleInternal Grassroots
Guatemalan environmentalists
Functional GroupCivil Society
Geographical ScaleInternal Grassroots
National civilian police
Functional GroupPublic
Geographical ScaleInternal National
Entry Points for Resilience and Peace Building
2 Mediation & arbitration The UN carbon offsetting scheme Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM), under which the project was accepted, iterated recommendations including the creation of a grievance mechanism for local stakeholders to voice social and environmental concerns and to help resolve issues that emerge. The CDM board and the community councils of the affected region are currently engaged in dialogue.
3 Treaty/agreement A convention was signed between national authorities, companies and communities on the Santa Rita Dam project in 2014.
0 Social inclusion & empowerment International covenants ratified by Guatemala state that prior consultations with affected communities are required during the planning of hydroelectric projects. However, this requirement was not upheld.
1 Promoting social change 29 civil society organisations have asked the UN Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples to address the conflict.
Further Details opencollapse
Conflict Characterization
Character of the contested good Common-pool resource: No one can be excluded from use but the good is depleted.
Structure of decision-making power / interdependence Asymmetric: The power to affect the environmental resource is unequal.
Broad conflict characterization Resource capture is not present.
Ecological marginalization is not present.
Data of involved Countries
Resources and Materials opencollapse
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