Mapping environmental conflicts and cooperation



Shrimp Farming Conflicts in Bangladesh

Type of conflict main
Intensity 3
Southern Asia
Time 1980 ‐ ongoing
Countries Bangladesh
Resources Agricultural / Pastoral Land, Water
Conflict Summary Bangladesh experienced a boom in shrimp farming during the 1980s to feed growing international demand. The expansion of shrimp cultivation has led to land...
Shrimp Farming Conflicts in Bangladesh
Bangladesh experienced a boom in shrimp farming during the 1980s to feed growing international demand. The expansion of shrimp cultivation has led to land grabbing and, in conjunction with the increasing occurrence of extreme weather events, such as cyclones and flooding, has also led to salinisation of soil and water sources.
Conceptual Model

Climate Change

Bangladesh is exceedingly vulnerable to extreme weather events such as cyclones, storm surges and tsunamis. Moreover, the rising water levels in the Bay of Bengal has aggravated the salinization process caused by shrimp farming, and will inundate a large part of the country’s productive land by the end of the century.

Intermediary Mechanisms

Extreme weather events have destroyed vulnerable shrimp farms in the coastal areas, affecting the livelihoods of farmers. Fresh water fishermen and farmers have also been affected by the salinization of water caused by shrimp farms. Furthermore, land grabbing by aggressive shrimp companies has displaced small farmers, removing their only source of income.

Fragility and Conflict Risks

Conflict over water and land between farmers and shrimp companies is a continuous problem that causes fatalities. Numerous protests and anti-shrimp movements have developed, but the Bangladeshi government has not intervened to regulate shrimp farm expansion.

Climate ChangeEnvironmental ChangeIntermediary MechanismsFragility and Conflict RisksSocial and Economic DriversSea level rise leads to salinization of coastal aquifers.Sea-level rise reduces available land.Extreme weather event is consistent with predictions regarding more frequent and/or intense extreme weather events.Economic developments lead to changes in land use.Economic activity causes pollution.Water scarcity undermines water-dependent livelihoods.Changes in land use lead to migration/displacements.Land scarcity undermines the livelihoods of agricultural producers.Extreme weather event destroys/threatens livelihoods.Pollution reduces available/usable freshwater.Migration leads to conflicts between migrants and residents.Livelihood insecurity fuels grievances between groups.A rise of sea-level and the related coastal degradation and change of land and territory.Sea Level RiseAn increase in the scarcity of clean water and/or an increased variability in water supply.Increased Water ScarcityReduced availability of/ access to land.Increased Land ScarcityAn increase in the frequency and/or intensity of extreme weather events, such as floods or droughts.More Frequent / Intense Extreme Weather EventsA specific extreme weather event such as a flood or a storm.Extreme Weather EventA broad concept to cover economic growth in general but also specific economic changes or changes of incentives.Economic DevelopmentA change in the usage of environmentally relevant land.Land Use ChangePollution and degradation of ecosystems, such as coral reefs.Pollution / Environmental DegradationA threat or destruction of livelihoods dependent on the availability of environmental resources / goods.Livelihood Insecurity(In)voluntary long and short-term movements of people within or across state boundaries.Displacements / MigrationNon-violent or violent tensions and conflicts between different societal groups.Grievances between Societal Groups
Context Factors
  • Unresponsive Government
Conflict History

During the 1980s, Bangladesh rapidly expanded its aquiculture industry in shrimp farming to feed growing international demand (Paprocki & Cons, 2014). The practice of turning mangroves into salt water reserves for shrimp farms has led to salt water intrusion into drinking and irrigation water, affecting the livelihoods of freshwater fishermen and farmers. Changes in the climate have exacerbated salinisation through cyclones, storm surges and tsunamis. Furthermore, aggressive shrimp corporations have displaced small farmers in the process of unchecked shrimp farm expansion. There has been no intervention to regulate shrimp farming by the Bangladesh government and conflict over water and land between farmers and shrimp companies is a continuous problem that causes fatalities.

Farmers threatened by climate change
Two-thirds of Bangladesh is less than five meters above sea level, particularly in the Bay of Bengal where shrimp cultivation is wide spread. For this reason, shrimp farms in Bangladesh are extremely vulnerable to climate change (Glass, 2013). Cyclone Sidr in 2007 destroyed more than 6,000 shrimp farms in coastal areas, affecting 400,000 farmers' only source of income (Greyl, 2014). It is estimated that if sea levels continue to rise, 40% of Bangladesh's productive land will be inundated before the end of the century (Glass, 2013).

Reports suggest that rising water levels in the Bay of Bengal, in conjunction with increasing incidences of cyclones and storm surges has aggravated the salinisation process caused by shrimp farming; exacerbating tensions between shrimp and agricultural farmers. It is estimated that some 53% of coastal land in Bangladesh is affected by salinity caused by shrimp farming (Rahman et al, 2009). Shrimp cultivation sites are often blamed for causing extreme weather events, such as floods. The construction of illegal pipe systems which feed shrimp farms with salt water act as access points for storm surges (Earth Focus, 2012).

Access here a special report on climate migration in Bangladesh.

Lack of government support for anti-shrimp movements
Shrimp cultivation has also led to increased incidences of land grabbing and those who oppose shrimp farming are often met with threats and intimidation (Earth Focus, 2012). Since the shrimp cultivation boom in the 1980s numerous protests and anti-shrimp movements have developed. For example, in 2009 thousands of farmers demonstrated against shrimp farms in the Khulna and Bagerhat districts. Protests occurred again in 2010 which resulted in violent clashes between rice and shrimp farmers (Greyl, 2014).

The government encourages unchecked shrimp farming because it is a major source of state income. Although some international development agencies and NGOs have encouraged more sustainable shrimp farming practices to reduce salinisation, these attempts do not focus on conflict mediation to address the grievances of farmers. There have been smaller civil society groups, such as the NGO Nijera Kori, which have organised protests and attracted international attention to the social, economic and environmental issues of shrimp farming. However, without strong governmental support, these efforts can only make minimal progress (see the Nijera Kori Shrimp Farming Conflit).

Resolution Efforts

Sustainable shrimp farming
International organisations have participated in sustainable development programs, in an attempt to promote sustainable shrimp cultivation. One particular project is co-sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in cooperation with the Bangladesh Department of Fisheries (DoF) to develop coastal aquaculture practices for salt tolerant fish species and to improve flood-preparedness in shrimp farming operations (World Fish, 2012).

However, these development programs aim to reduce the stress of shrimp farming on the environment, without directly addressing the reasons for conflict between shrimp businesses and small farmers. The scope of shrimp farming and land grabbing, has not been addressed by development agencies and remains a key contributor to violence.

Legal Actions
There have been isolated court cases brought against shrimp groups for flooding the land of agriculturalists. For example, the High Court of Justice in 2008 ruled in favour of the return of farm land to seventy-nine families which had been taken by shrimp farmers (Greyl, 2014).

However, in contrast to this, the central and local governments of Bangladesh encourage unchecked shrimp cultivation as it is the second largest export in Bangladesh (Glass, 2013). Legal rulings opposing shrimp cultivation are, therefore, rarely respected.

Local Efforts
Local movements have also been proactive in addressing the issues created by shrimp cultivation. The Delta Development project, for example, was implemented by the social mobilisation NGO, Nijera Kori, during the 1990s and 2000s. This project encouraged women's engagement in water management decisions and provided land re-appropriation support to farmers in order to protect the land from flooding and salinisation caused by shrimp farming and extreme weather events (Kabeer, 2003). This has been successful in reducing shrimp farming in Polder 22, and consequently, violence. However, no comprehensive state-wide approach has been implemented.

Intensities & Influences
conflict intensity scale
International / Geopolitical Intensity
Human Suffering

Environmental Influences
Societal Influences

Manifest Crisis
Violent Conflict Yes
Salience within nation Regional
Mass Displacement Less than 100.000 and less than 10% of the country's population are displaced within the country.
Cross Border Mass Displacement No
Agricultural / Pastoral Land, Water
Resolution Success
Resolve of displacement problems Displacement continues to cause discontent and/or other problems.
Reduction in geographical scope There has been no reduction in geographical scope.
Increased capacity to address grievance in the future There is no increased capacity to address grievances in the future.
Grievance Resolution Grievances have been mostly ignored.
Causal Attribution of Decrease in Conflict Intensity There has been no reduction in intensity
General opencollapse
Country Data in Comparison
ConflictNoData Created with Sketch.
Fault Lines Defining Conflict Parties
Purely Environmental | Cultural   ♦   Occupational   ♦   Economic   ♦   Urban / Rural   ♦   National / International conflict   ♦   Sub-national political

Participation Conflict Party     Conflict Resolution Facilitator
Central Bangladeshi government
Functional GroupPublic
Geographical ScaleInternal National
Local Bangladeshi governments
Functional GroupPublic
Geographical ScaleInternal Grassroots
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
Functional GroupPublic
Geographical ScaleExternal
High Court of Justice
Functional GroupPublic
Geographical ScaleInternal National
Local Farmers (Bangladesh)
Functional GroupCivil Society
Geographical ScaleInternal Grassroots
Shrimp Corporations
Functional GroupCommercial
Geographical ScaleInternal International
Nijera Kori
Functional GroupCivil Society
Geographical ScaleInternal Grassroots
Entry Points for Resilience and Peace Building
1 Mediation & arbitration Isolated court cases have been brought against shrimp groups for flooding the land of agriculturalists. However, legal rulings are rarely respected. A comprehensive state-wide approach to regulate shrimp farming could further help addressing grievances surrounding land grabbing and unchecked environmental degradation.
2 Improving resource efficiency Sustainable shrimp cultivation has been promoted by international organizations.
3 Promoting social change Local movements have addressed the issues surrounding shrimp cultivation, and have had some success in reducing shrimp farming and violence.
Further Details opencollapse
Conflict Characterization
Structure of decision-making power / interdependence Asymmetric: The power to affect the environmental resource is unequal.
Broad conflict characterization Resource Capture is strongly present.
Ecological Marginalization is strongly present.
Data of involved Countries
Resources and Materials opencollapse