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Mapping environmental conflicts and cooperation

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Conflict between Tama and Zaghawa in Chad

Type of conflict sub
Intensity 3
Region
Central Africa
Time 2006 ‐ 2006
Countries Chad
Resources Agricultural / Pastoral Land, Water
Conflict Summary In the context of armed conflicts in Chad and neighbouring Sudan, communal violence pitted Tama and Zaghawa groups against each other in eastern Chad....
Conflict between Tama and Zaghawa in Chad
In the context of armed conflicts in Chad and neighbouring Sudan, communal violence pitted Tama and Zaghawa groups against each other in eastern Chad. Frequently, these involved livestock raids and fighting over land.
Conceptual Model

Climate Change

Chad was afflicted by a drought in 1990.

Intermediary Mechanisms

The Tama and Zaghawa have historically clashed over grazing resources and livestock. As a result of the drought, many Zaghawa migrated into Tama land, escalating tensions between both groups in the context of armed conflicts in Chad and neighbouring Sudan.

Fragility and Conflict Risks

Violence erupted between Tama and Zaghawa-dominated rebel factions in 2006, claiming more than 200 lives. Communal conflicts frequently involved livestock raids and fighting over land.

Climate ChangeEnvironmental ChangeIntermediary MechanismsFragility and Conflict RisksSocial and Economic DriversExtreme weather event is consistent with predictions regarding more frequent and/or intense extreme weather events.Extreme weather event leads to scarcity of essential natural resources.Reduced availability of/access to natural resources induces migration.Migration leads to conflicts between migrants and residents.An increase in the frequency and/or intensity of extreme weather events, such as floods or droughts.More Frequent / Intense Extreme Weather EventsA specific extreme weather event such as a flood or a storm.Extreme Weather EventReduced availability of essential natural resources, such as land and water.Change in Access / Availability of Natural Resources(In)voluntary long and short-term movements of people within or across state boundaries.Displacements / MigrationNon-violent or violent tensions and conflicts between different societal groups.Grievances between Societal Groups
Context Factors
  • Water-stressed Area
  • Power Differential
  • Unresponsive Government
Conflict History

Between 2006 and 2007, clashes between Tama and Zaghawa in Dar Tama, eastern Chad, claimed more than 200 victims and displaced several thousand people. Different factors contributed to the escalation of tensions between the two groups: the struggle for pastureland, fighting between elements of the Tama-dominated FUC (Forces Unies pour le Changement) and elements of the mainly Zaghawa RAFD (Rassemblement des Forces Démocratiques), as well as a worsening humanitarian situation with an increasing number of Darfurian refugees in eastern Chad (UCDP, 2014; HRW, 2007; Miarom, 2007).

Historically, relationships between the Tama and Zaghawa have oscillated between peaceful coexistence and occasional conflict over grazing resources and livestock. Tensions began to build up in 1990, when many Zaghawa moved into the Guereda region as a result of drought. This movement forced many Tama to flee to neighbouring Darfur, where they launched a rebellion against the Chadian government. Migration of Zaghawa onto Tama land was further encouraged by the fact that Idriss Déby, who had recently seized power in Chad, was himself a Zaghawa and largely expected to support his own community. Indeed, many local officials appointed in eastern Chad were Zaghawa, adding to the perception among the Tama that the government was sectarian (HRW, 2007). In the second half of 2006, violence between the two groups erupted in the wake of fights between Tama and Zaghawa-dominated rebel factions of the FUC and the RAFD. Each community suspected members of the other community to be supporting an enemy rebel group. Attacks frequently also involved the looting of property and livestock and the opportunistic use of violence in order to gain access to land (HRW, 2007; UCDP, 2014).

The level of violence between both groups has significantly decreased, partly as a result of the deployment of an EU force (European Union Mission in Chad and the Central African Republic) in 2008. Since 2007, there have been no reports of large scale clashes between Tama and Zaghawa (ACLED, 2014).

Resolution Efforts

Many people in Dar Tama have criticised the work of military and police forces, which has done little to stop communal violence and prosecute the perpetrators of attacks against the civilian population. Some have even accused local authorities of supporting the Zaghawa in their fight against the Tama (HRW, 2007).

Yet, the level of communal violence in Dar Tama has sensibly diminished since the deployment of an EU force in February 2008. In March 2009, this force was taken over by the United Nations under the MINURCAT (Mission des Nations unies en République centrafricaine et au Tchad) mandate.

Intensities & Influences
conflict intensity scale
Intensities
International / Geopolitical Intensity
Human Suffering

Influences
Environmental Influences
Societal Influences

Manifest Crisis
Fatalities
200
Violent Conflict Yes
Salience within nation Regional
Mass Displacement Less than 100.000 and less than 10% of the country's population are displaced within the country.
Cross Border Mass Displacement Less than 100.000 and less than 10% of the population are displaced across borders.
Destination Countries Sudan
Resources
Agricultural / Pastoral Land, Water
Resolution Success
Reduction in Violence Violence reduced significantly, but did not cede.
Resolve of displacement problems Displacement continues to cause discontent and/or other problems.
Reduction in geographical scope There has been no reduction in geographical scope.
Increased capacity to address grievance in the future There is no increased capacity to address grievances in the future.
Grievance Resolution Grievances have been mostly ignored.
Causal Attribution of Decrease in Conflict Intensity Conflict resolution strategies have been clearly responsible for the decrease in conflict intensity.
General opencollapse
Country Data in Comparison
ConflictNoData Created with Sketch.
Fault Lines Defining Conflict Parties
Purely Environmental | Cultural   ♦   Occupational   ♦   Economic   ♦   Urban / Rural   ♦   National / International conflict   ♦   Sub-national political


Actors
Participation Conflict Party     Conflict Resolution Facilitator
Zaghawa herders
Functional GroupCivil Society
Geographical ScaleInternal Grassroots
Tama herders
Functional GroupCivil Society
Geographical ScaleInternal Grassroots
Forces Unies pour le Changement (FUC)
Functional GroupNon-State Violent Actor
Geographical ScaleInternal National
Rassemblement des Forces Démocratiques (RAFD)
Functional GroupNon-State Violent Actor
Geographical ScaleInternal National
UN Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad
Functional GroupPublic
Geographical ScaleExternal
Entry Points for Resilience and Peace Building
3 Treaty/agreement The deployment of an EU force in 2008 was successful in diminishing communal violence in Dar Tama.
Further Details opencollapse
Conflict Characterization
Character of the contested good Common-pool resource: No one can be excluded from use but the good is depleted.
Structure of decision-making power / interdependence Asymmetric: The power to affect the environmental resource is unequal.
Broad conflict characterization Resource capture is not present.
Ecological Marginalization is present.
Data of involved Countries
Resources and Materials opencollapse
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